I've never been to an orchestra
concert before. What should I expect?
Expect to enjoy yourself! This is the time to let go of any preconceptions
you may have about classical music or the concert experience. If you feel
a little nervous, that's OK. Some things about the concert may seem strange
because they're new to you, but if you just focus on the music, you'll
have a great time.
Open yourself up to the music. Let it trigger your emotions—maybe
even your memories. Feel the rhythms; follow the tunes. Watch the musicians
and the conductor, and see how they interact with each other. Notice how
the music ebbs and flows—surging and powerful at some times, delicate
and ephemeral at others, and everything in between.
What if I don't know anything about classical music? Do I
need to study beforehand?
There's no need to study. The music will speak for itself. Just come and
Over time, many frequent concertgoers do find their enjoyment is deeper
if they prepare for a concert. This can be simple, like reading the program
notes beforehand; or it can be more involved, like listening to recordings
of the music to be performed in the days before they attend a concert.
You know yourself best, so if research interests you, go ahead and follow
your curiosity. But if studying isn't your thing, there's no need to be
concerned about it. Just listen with an open mind.
Will I recognize any of the music?
You might. Classical music is all around us: in commercials, movie soundtracks,
television themes, cartoons, retail shops, and even some elevators! Popular
music often quotes classical melodies, too. While you're listening in the
concert to a piece you think you've never heard before, a tune you've heard
a hundred times may jump out at you.
Whether or not you've heard the music before the concert, as you listen,
you'll notice that each classical piece uses its own group of several tunes
over and over, in different ways. You'll start to "recognize" these melodies
as a work progresses. Listen for the ways a melody is repeated: Is it exactly
the same as the first time, or with a different character? Is it played
by the same instruments, or different ones? Does it start the same as before,
but go off in a different direction? Or start differently and surprise
you by developing into the tune you recognize from earlier in the piece?
What should I wear?
There is no dress code! Anything that makes you feel comfortable is fine.
Most people will be wearing business clothes or slightly dressy casual
clothes, but you'll see everything from khakis to cocktail dresses. Some
people enjoy dressing up and making a special night of it, and you can,
too. Still, evening gowns and tuxedos are pretty rare unless you've bought
tickets for a fancy gala—and if you have, you'll know!
If you do decide to dress up, though, go easy on the cologne, which can
distract others near you and even prompt them to sneeze (which may distract
Should I arrive early?
Absolutely! Plan to arrive 20 minutes before concert time, so you can find
your seat, turn off your cell phone, take a look at your surroundings,
absorb the atmosphere, and have time to glance through the program book,
too. You won't be alone. Most concertgoers make a point of coming early
to read the program notes, or just watch the orchestra
Rushing to your seat at the last minute doesn't really give you enough
time to get settled, so you may not fully enjoy the first piece on the
program. And there's another good reason to come early: Most concerts start
on time. If you're late, you may end up listening from the lobby! If that
happens, the usher will allow you inside during a suitable pause in the
program, so your arrival won't disturb other concertgoers.
How long will the concert be?
It varies, but most orchestra concerts are about 90 minutes to two hours
long, with an intermission at the halfway point. Very often there will
be several pieces on the concert; but sometimes there is one single work
played straight through. It's a good idea to take a look at the program
before the concert to get an idea of what to expect.
When should I clap?
This is the number-one scary question! No one wants to clap in the "wrong" place.
But it's simpler than you may think, and quite logical on the whole.
At the beginning of the concert, the concertmaster will come onstage. The
audience claps as a welcome, and as a sign of appreciation to all the musicians.
After the orchestra tunes, the conductor (and possibly a soloist) will
come onstage. Everyone claps to welcome them, too. This is also a good
moment to make sure your program is open, so you can see the names of the
pieces that will be played and their order.
Then everything settles down and the music begins. Just listen and enjoy!
The audience doesn't usually applaud again until the end of the piece.
In most classical concerts—unlike jazz or pop—the audience
never applauds during the music. They wait until the end of each piece,
then let loose with their applause. But this can be a little tricky, because
many pieces seem to end several times—in other words, they have several
parts, or "movements." These are listed in your program.
In general, musicians and your fellow listeners prefer not to hear applause
during the pauses between these movements, so they can concentrate on the
progress from one movement to the next. Symphonies and concertos have a
momentum that builds from the beginning to the end, through all their movements,
and applause can "break the mood," especially when a movement ends quietly.
Sometimes, though, the audience just can't restrain itself, and you'll
hear a smattering of applause—or a lot of it—during the pause
before the next movement. It's perfectly OK to join in if you enjoyed the
(By the way, disregard anyone who "shushes" you for applauding between
movements. It's only in the last 50 years or so that audiences stopped
applauding between movements, so you have music history on your side!)
What if you lose track, and aren't sure whether the piece is truly over?
One clue is to watch the conductor. Usually, s/he won't relax between movements,
but keep hands raised; the attention of the musicians will remain on the
conductor. If in any doubt, it's always safe to wait and follow what the
rest of the audience does!
At the end of the piece, it's time to let yourself go and let the musicians
know how you felt about their playing. Many pieces end "big"—and
you won't have any doubt of what to do when! Some end very quietly, and
then you'll see the conductor keep hands raised for a few seconds at the
end, to "hold the mood." Then the hands will drop, someone will clap or
yell "Bravo!"—and that's your cue. There's no need to restrain yourself.
If you enjoyed what you heard, you can yell "Bravo!" too.
What if I need to cough during the music?
Everyone gets the urge to cough now and then. Worrying about disturbing
your fellow listeners is a laudable impulse, but don't let it ruin your
enjoyment of the concert. There's a funny thing about coughing—the
less worried you are about it, the less likely you are to feel the urge!
So chances are you'll feel less need to cough if you're prepared.
Be sure to visit the water fountain in the lobby before the
concert, and at intermission.
If you have a cold, take some cough medicine in advance
and bring wax paper-wrapped—or unwrapped-lozenges
with you. (At some concerts, you'll even see
cough drops free for the taking in the lobby.) Have
a few out and ready when the music begins.
Allow yourself to become involved in listening to the
music and in watching the performers. The more you are absorbed
in what's going on, the less likely you are to cough.
If you absolutely can't restrain yourself, try to wait
for the end of a movement. Or "bury" your cough in a loud
passage of music. If this is impossible, and you feel a
coughing fit coming on, it's perfectly acceptable to quietly
exit the concert hall. Don't be embarrassed—your
fellow listeners will probably appreciate your concern
for their listening experience.
What should I do with my cell phone during the concert?
Turn it off! The same goes for pagers and alarm watches. It's a good idea
to double-check in the few minutes before the concert begins, and again
as intermission draws to a close. Better still, leave them at home if you
Doctors and emergency workers who are "on call" can give their pagers to
an usher, who will summon them quietly if they are paged.
Can I take pictures?
Cameras, video recorders, and tape recorders aren't permitted in concerts.
If you happen to have one with you, be sure to stop at the coat-check and
check it in before entering the auditorium. If you have a camera and want
a souvenir of a special evening at the symphony, it can be fun to ask someone
to take your picture outside the concert hall before you go in.
Why is there an intermission, and what should I do during
It's a short rest period for the musicians and conductor—once you
see how much activity goes into a performance, you'll understand why they
need a break!
Listening to music is also an intense activity (even if considerably less
physical), and a break in the middle helps the audience concentrate better
in the second half. Some concerts, though, have no intermission because
it would interrupt the flow of a long work. Check the program before the
concert so you know what's coming.
Most intermissions are fifteen to twenty minutes long, which gives you
time to socialize with your companions, get a drink or a snack in the lobby,
visit the facilities, or simply sit in your seat and read the program notes.
Do whatever puts you in a good frame of mind to hear the second half of
Can I bring my kids?
It depends on the concert and on the age of your kids. Many standard-length
classical concerts are inappropriate for small children because they require
an attention span that is difficult for youngsters to maintain. Most concerts
also are held at night, and stretch beyond "bedtime."
So if your children are very young, check with your local orchestra, which
may present family or children's concerts on weekends; these are a great
way for families to enjoy classical music together. Young children are
especially intrigued by the many different instruments of the orchestra
and the way they are played. Try to sit up close to the orchestra, so your
kids will have a great view of everything that's going on.
To further build your children's interest in classical music, play classical
radio or CDs around the house. When they are old enough to sit quietly
for an extended period, you may wish to bring them to the first half of
a standard concert. An interested preteen or teenager could also have a
marvelous time at an orchestra concert, particularly if it features several
In all cases, it's a good idea to check with the orchestra directly about
the appropriateness of the concert you plan to attend with your kids. Also
ask about discounts for students and children.
About the Orchestra
What is a symphony orchestra, exactly?
A symphony orchestra is a collection of up to about 100 musicians who play
instruments of four basic types:
Strings—violins (smallest, and highest in pitch),
violas, cellos, and doublebasses (largest and lowest in pitch).
These players sit in a semicircle directly in front of the conductor,
and make up more than half the orchestra.
Woodwinds—flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons,
and related instruments. These players sit a
few rows back from the conductor, in the center of the orchestra.
Brass—trumpets, horns, trombones, tubas,
and similar instruments. These instruments are
the loudest, so you'll see them at the back of the orchestra.
Percussion—the drums, bells, and other
fascinating paraphernalia that are struck, plucked,
rubbed, etc. This includes the kettledrums, the harp, and,
on occasion, the piano. Some works use lots of different
percussion; others may have a single musician playing
the kettledrums, or no percussion at all. The percussion
section is also found at the back of the orchestra.
Why are the musicians
onstage playing before the concert begins?
Just like basketball players taking shots and practicing moves before
the game, musicians need to warm up their muscles and focus their concentration.
This is fun to listen to and to watch. Some of them are working on
the passages they need to polish up before the performance, with no
regard for what anyone else is practicing. Pick out the flute or the
trumpet playing a solo line over and over, and listen to how it changes.
Does it get smoother? If the player stops in the middle and starts
over, can you hear the reason why? (It's especially fun to recognize
these solos later in the performance! Give a silent cheer for the player
who nails the solo.)
Not all of the orchestra players practice onstage, of course. Just
like the audience, everyone is doing his or her own thing. Some are
talking; others are paging through their music. And some don't come
onstage at all until a minute or two before the performance. But at
concert time, everyone is in place and ready to start.
Why do the musicians wear formal black clothes?
This is a long tradition that started a few centuries ago. Sometimes,
these days, musicians dress a little more casually. But they still
try to look uniform, so that the audience can concentrate on the music.
Soloists are the exception: they often dress differently, because they
are the focus of attention.
How come there are more stringed instruments than anything
The sound of each individual stringed instrument is softer than a brass
or a woodwind instrument. But in large numbers, they make a magnificent,
Why do their bows move together?
The players of each individual section—first violins, second
violins, violas, cellos, and doublebasses—play in unison
most of the time. So all the cellos move together, for instance.
As you listen, noticing the different bowings for each section
gives you a visual clue to sort out the various melodies you're
What does the concertmaster do?
The concertmaster sits in the first chair of the first violins.
S/he acts as leader of that section, but also plays a leadership
role with orchestra as a whole. S/he is also the last orchestra
musician to enter the stage before a concert, and cues the oboe
to "tune" the
Why do all the musicians tune to the oboe?
The penetrating tone of the oboe is easy for all players to hear,
and its ability to sustain pitch is very secure. The oboe plays
the note "A," and
all the players make sure their "A" is exactly on the same pitch
as the oboe's. This ensures that they all are in agreement about
the tuning before the concert starts.
Why do the string players share stands?
Fewer stands mean that the musicians, who are moving around quite a
bit, have more room to play freely. Also, because the strings play
more continuously than the other parts, their page turns can fall in
inconvenient places where there should be no break in the music. Look
closely and you'll see that the player on the outside keeps playing,
while the player on the inside briefly stops playing to turn the page.
Why does the conductor leave after every piece of music?
This provides the conductor a little breather—a chance to
collect his or her thoughts before starting the next piece. If
the applause is very enthusiastic, the conductor will come onstage
again, bow, and perhaps recognize some musicians who played important
solos in the piece. S/he may depart again once or twice before
moving on to the next piece on the program.
Why don't the musicians smile while they play?
Look closely and you'll see that some of them do! But in general,
they are concentrating deeply, just like outfielders waiting for
the fly ball or pitchers winding up to a curve ball. They're "in the Zone." After
the music is over, you may see them smiling broadly. If it was a concerto,
and they liked the soloist's playing, they won't just smile—the
string players will tap their stands with their bows as a sign
Before the Next Concert
How can I learn more about classical music?
Most orchestras give you several ways to learn more. You can read program
notes online in advance of a concert, or in your seat before the concert
begins. Many concerts are preceded by free lectures or discussions,
and these can be entertaining and enlightening. Sometimes the conductor
or soloist even talks about the music during the concert.
But you might not need to "know" more to have a great time at your
next concert. Most people who attend concerts frequently find that
it's like any other passionate pursuit: The more you do it, the
more you enjoy it. Most of the classical works you hear repay frequent
listening: The more often you hear a piece, the more wonderful
layers you hear in it. If you enjoyed your first concert, plan
to come again!
Check the orchestra's web site for future concerts that are specifically
designed to help you hear the many layers in the music. And if your
concert hall has a gift shop, pay a visit during intermission; you
may find books and recordings that will help you enjoy your next concert
Here are some links to web sites where you can look up composers and
their works, buy recordings, and learn more about classical music:
For a wonderful introduction to American music, visit the web site
for the American
Mavericks public radio series, which features the San Francisco
Symphony. The site includes biographies of composers, music downloads,
and interviews and features on contemporary music.
classical music news, reviews, and commentary. For a monthly fee, subscribers
can download performances and access reference sources.
For kids who are learning to play instruments, FromTheTop.com offers
a great resource, and access to public radio's From The Top programs.
Many orchestras have wonderful web sites for smaller kids. They can
play musical games at playmusic for
starters, and visit its music
links page to connect to more great music sites just for them.
Zone of the Naxos Records web site has an introduction to classical
music, biographies of composers, a glossary of musical terms, and an
excellent guide to live-concert listening. You can also stream loads
of classical pieces, so this is a great place to visit if you want
to listen to a work a couple of times before you hear it in concert.
And if you like the very newest "classical" music, don't miss NewMusicBox,
a monthly web 'zine about living composers and their works.